Soilless three-dimensional cultivation

Three-dimensional cultivation, also known as vertical cultivation, is a three-dimensional, soilless cultivation. This cultivation is conducted in a space surrounded by cylindrical cultivation without affecting the conditions of flat culture. It utilizes greenhouse space and solar energy to improve land use. The rate of 3-5 cultures can increase the yield per unit area by 2 to 3 times. In the 1960s, three-dimensional soilless culture was first developed in developed countries, and the United States, Japan, Spain, Italy and other countries researched and developed different forms of three-dimensional soilless culture, such as multi-layer, pendant, sausage, and cell stacking. Etc. Since the 1990s, China began to research and popularize this technology. Column-type soilless culture has become the first choice for leisure agriculture because of its high-tech, novelty, and aesthetic characteristics. In recent years, it has grown up in Beijing, Shanghai, Northeast China, Hebei, Jiangsu and other regions have adopted. First, the three-dimensional cultivation type (a) column cultivation cultivation column using cup-shaped asbestos cement pipe, rigid plastic pipe, ceramic tube or tile tube, in the spiral position around the hole, and made ear-like prominent, in order to plant Crops, cultivating containers are loaded into the matrix and stacked together to form cultivation columns. Special soilless culture columns can also be used, which consist of a number of short mold tubes, each with several protruding cups for seeding the crop (Figure 9-13A). (2) The long bag cultivation cultivating bag is a polyethylene tube with a diameter of 15cm and a thickness of 0.15mm. The length is generally 2m. The bottom is tightly closed to prevent the falling of the substrate. The sausage is put into the matrix from the upper end and the upper end is ligated. Hang in the greenhouse and open 2.5-5 cm holes around the bag to grow the crop (Figure 9-13B). Considering the factors such as the cost of the section facilities, the cultivation effect and the requirements for the greenhouse environment, the pillarless soilless cultivation has certain ornamental value, and has low investment and high efficiency. It is widely used throughout China. The following column pillar cultivation as an example to introduce its facilities structure and management. II. Column-type Soilless Culture Facility Structure The column-type soilless culture facility consists of a nutrient solution pool, a flat DFT system, a cultivation column, a column cultivation tray, and a column filling cultivation liquid return system. 1. The standard volume of nutrient solution pool needs 15-20t water according to the water culture area of ​​666m2. The specific construction method is the same as before. 2. The planar DFT system refers to the chapter on water culture. 3. Cultivating pillar The pillar is used to support and fix the carrier of the vine and the drip box. The stanchion makes the cultivating crucible wear in one, and the air column leads to the cement pier and the iron pipe. The size of the cement pier is 15cm square, and a hole with a diameter of 30mm and a depth of 10cm is buried in the middle of the waterbed to fix the iron pipe of the vertical pillar. The distance between the piers is 90cm. The diameter of the iron pipe is 25-30mm and the length is about 2m. The material can be made of thin-walled iron pipe or rigid plastic pipe. The lower end of the pipe is inserted into the hole of the cement pier. 4. Cultivated planting Cultivated planting plant is a device for planting crops on uprights. The shape is a hollow, six-valve plastic crucible, 20 cm high, 20 cm in diameter, and the granularity of rock wool or coconut shell fiber is 10 cm. At the lobes, 6 plants were colonized, and 8-9 were placed in the greenhouse and 4 were placed in the drop box. The cultivated pods are staggered into columns on the staggered petal position. 5. Add liquid back system The liquid system for column cultivation consists of the pump plus liquid charge and the liquid addition pipe. The liquid addition main pipe is a φ40~50mm hard drip tube, and the liquid addition pipe is a φ16mm non-porous rigid dropper. The drip box is a round plastic box. Both ends of the box have two hollow short handles for connection and connection. The liquid branch pipe has 6 holes around the bottom of the box to make nutrient solution flow down. The center of the bottom of the drip box is fixed above the column. When the liquid is supplied, the nutrient solution is pumped out of the liquid pool by the water pump, enters the drip box through the liquid addition pipe and the liquid addition pipe, flows into the cultivation pot from the drop box, passes through the bottom hole of the cultivation pot, and flows into the second cultivation pot, in turn Downstream to the bottom of a cultivation rake and then into the plane hydroponic bed, and then return to the nutrient tank to complete a cycle. Third, the three-dimensional soilless cultivation precautions 1. Selection of cultivation vegetables Column cultivation is not suitable for all vegetables, avoid weaknesses to play the role of the column, the general dwarf type leafy vegetables suitable for column cultivation, the height of its upward growth is generally not appropriate More than 45cm, the varieties that have been successfully tested include leafy vegetables such as Hyacinthus radix, strawberry, Artemisia candida, loose leaf lettuce, rapeseed, and clover. Plants of higher plant type will fall due to space limitations and gravity, stems fall, affecting growth, fruit and vegetable categories require higher light conditions generally not suitable for column cultivation, but can adopt the upper 2-3 layers of columns to plant dwarf fruit vegetables, Such as strawberries, the method of growing leafy vegetables. Due to the special configuration of the pillars, vegetables cannot grow symmetrically around the front and back. The bulbous vegetables are not suitable for pillar-type cultivation due to poor appearance and poor commercial quality. 2. Illumination illumination is an important environmental factor affecting the yield and quality of three-dimensional cultivation. Under column cultivation, the light intensity decreases with the decrease of the number of cultivated alfalfa layers, and the light obtained by the positive plants of the column is better than the shade. According to measurements, from the top to the bottom of the column, the light intensity decreases by an average of 15% per layer, except for the highest shade of the sun and the sun, the shade of the remaining layers is only about 50% of the sun's surface. In order to make up for the lack of light and differences, it is necessary to rotate the column regularly so that 6 crops in each layer can receive a sufficient amount of sunlight. This is an important method to ensure crops grow neatly and increase production. In addition, artificial supplements can also be used. The method of light.

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