Greenhouse early spring tomato cultivation techniques

First, the varieties should be selected for disease resistance, early maturing, cold resistance, concentrated results, and high yield varieties. Such as early powder No. 2, Maofen 802, Zaofeng, early Kui, strong abundance and other fine varieties. Second, nurturing strong seedlings 1, the determination of the sowing date appropriate sowing time should be based on local climatic conditions, planting period and strong seedlings standards. The age-appropriate seedlings require 6-8 leaves when they are colonized. The first inflorescence has obvious buds, thick stems, dark green leaves, hypertrophy, and well-developed root systems. This standard is reached, and the seedling age is about 70-80 days. The middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River are sown in early January to early February. 2. Transplantation should be carried out with 1-2 leaves, which will affect the flower bud differentiation too late. Generally, it is used to transplant the seedlings with open trenches, or with nutritious soil blocks and paper bags. The spacing of transplanted plants is 8-10 cm square. 3, seedling management due to earlier seedlings, when the light is poor, low temperature, improper management, it is prone to leggy seedlings or aging seedlings. Therefore, we should pay attention to the appropriate temperature and moisture to meet its nutritional requirements. In the nutrient soil should be combined with a certain amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. In order to ensure the need of seedlings for phosphate fertilizer, 2% superphosphate solution can be sprayed 1-2 times during the seedling period. With appropriate combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, even with a slightly lower greenhouse, weaker light can still perform normal flower bud differentiation. Third, deep plowing and basal fertilizer before winter deep-turning the land of 24-30 cm, combined with the application of organic fertilizer 500 kg per 667 square meters, turn it into the deep. After the soil has started to thaw, it is immediately ridged and soiled to increase ground temperature. When planting, every 667 square meters can be applied about 2,500 kg of organic fertilizer and 20-30 kg of superphosphate. IV. Colonization and Planting The planting period depends on the microclimate conditions in the greenhouse. The indicator is that the temperature is stable at 10°C above 8°C, the minimum temperature is above 0°C (preferably 6-7°C), and it is stable after 5-7 days. In order to settle early, it should be 15-20 days before planting. Bonding sheds to the ground. Most of them are planted in late March to late April. If there are heating facilities in the shed or multi-layered membranes are used, planting can be done as early as possible. In the middle and late March, attention should be paid to insulation measures to avoid the danger of late spring and cold weather. Planting density depends on the season, breed, and pruning method. For single stem pruning, the plants can be densely planted with a spacing of 50 cm and a spacing of 30-40 cm. The double dry pruning can be appropriately diluted. Precocious varieties can be dense, medium and late-maturing varieties slightly sparse. V. Management after planting 1. Temperature and humidity control After planting, a higher temperature is required to accelerate seedlings and lay the material foundation for flowering and fruit setting. Therefore, after 3-4 days after planting, the air is kept at a temperature of about 25-30°C, and the air humidity is about 80%. After reducing the temperature, the greenhouse temperature should be reduced, and the amount of ventilation should be increased. During the day, it should be 20-25°C and 13-15°C at night. However, the night temperature should not be too low, otherwise the normal development of plants will be affected and the humidity will drop to about 60%. In the fruit enlargement period, the temperature can be appropriately increased, 25-28°C during the day, 15-17°C at night, air humidity 45%-60%, and soil moisture 85%-95%. In particular, when the fruit is near mature, the temperature of the greenhouse can be slightly increased by 2-3°C to speed up the ripening of the fruit. However, after hanging red lines should not be high temperature, otherwise it will affect the formation of lycopene, adverse coloring and affect the quality. In order to maintain a suitable temperature, when the minimum night temperature is not lower than 15°C, ventilation can be performed day and night. 2. During watering, topdressing, and cultivating, the environment with high humidity should be created and the improper watering should be prevented, and the ground temperature should be lowered to affect the seedlings. After easing the seedlings, the seedlings shall be poured with a sapling of seedling water, and 5-10 kg of urea will be chased with 667 m2 of water every time. After the seedlings are irrigated, the seedlings must be controlled and water should be strictly controlled. The soil should be loosened to increase the ground temperature, maintain the soil moisture content so as to properly control the stems and leaves, and promote the accumulation of the characteristics of the body to facilitate the growth of the root system to the size of the walnut. Ending the seedlings requires topdressing 15 kg of urea per 667 square meters or 1000 kg of human excrement per person. Fruit and water must be abundant in fruit period, and top dressing 1-2 times. Every time 667 square meters topdressing urea 10 kg, or with urea, potassium dihydrogen phosphate foliar spray fertilizer. The water is usually poured every 7 days or so. However, the top-dressing irrigation should be uniform and cannot be ignored. Otherwise, it is prone to empty fruit or umbilical rot. 3. The temperature in other management sheds is high and the temperature is high, affecting pollination and fertilization, causing flowering. The flowers can be sprayed with 10X10-62.4-D wipes or (20-30)X10-6 anti-drops when the flower is half open. High-temperature, high-humidity, and low-light are characteristics of the shed's microclimate, which can easily cause tomato to grow long, result in poor results, and mature late. Therefore, timely pruning should be done to coordinate the relationship between vegetative growth and reproductive growth. Precocious cultivation generally adopts and single stem pruning, leaving 3-5 ear fruit topping. Love autumn cultivation, can use modified single dry pruning, retain 7-8 ear fruit topping. When the head is too dense or the fruit is too much, the excess small fruit can be removed. At the later stage, the disease, yellow and old leaves of the lower part should be removed at any time to facilitate ventilation and light transmission, and to prevent disease in time. Vegetable Work Station in Weicheng District, Xianyang City, Shaanxi Province Li Ling Shaanxi Bureau of Agriculture, Qindu District, Xianyang City

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