People say that the cultivation of cyanobacteria has "nine deaths and one life". In fact, as long as they grasp their essentials, the reproduction rate is not lower than that of spring and cypress. I have more than 50% of my seedlings in more than three years in the cold cultivation of the mountains. Now I introduce to Lanyou the experience of cultivation.
Chillando grows under a dense, broad-leaved forest with steep slopes, less light, shallow roots, and a thin layer of humus in the roots, which has good water permeability. Therefore, when planting, choose high-alkali zisha pots, one-third of the pelvic floor with coarse-grained bricks, foam blocks, and the middle with mackerel mud, coarse wood chips, weathered stone, planting stone, pond-based stone, and large soybean bricks. One-third of the grains are mixed into the pots, and the upper part is mixed with a small amount of humus, which is a mixture of weathered stone and brick grains. Seed planting requirements are loose, breathable, beneficial to water, and have good insulation properties. In particular, attention should be paid to the use of hard materials, sawdust, humus, etc., and the survival rate, seedling rate, and flowering rate are not high.
Because of the difference in growth environment between spring and spring, Cymbidium, the cultivation method should be slightly different. First, the degree of shading and temperature are similar to those of Murrum. Especially in the high-temperature season where light is strong, we must pay more attention to shading and moisturizing. In addition, leafy water should be sprayed on sunny days every morning or evening, and the degree of shading should be about 80%. This leaves a shiny, less incidence; I am in the hot season, the cold blue on the blue shelf, there are Chunlan, Gaolan block light, the effect is quite good. The second is wind and frost protection. During the autumn and winter period, avoid blowing winds and cover the heat on frost days. The third is fertilization. According to the above-mentioned planting materials, Chilling can generally be applied with less fertilization, or even without fertilization. Also, fertilizers with high nitrogen content, such as Huabao No. 4 and B1 germination agent, can be sprayed on the leaves from April to June. During the period of 8-10 months, fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium were sprayed, such as flowering fertilizer, Huabao No. 3, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate.
Whether or not Hanlan can open flowers, open flowers, fragrance, conservation is the key. If the flowers are dark, the light should be slightly stronger, and the light of the prime heart is slightly overcast. When the arrowhead begins to grow until it blooms, if you do not pay attention to the plant protection, the buds will easily rot. For this reason, the flower bud of Cymbidium is also easily attached by the aphids. The color of the insect pest is similar to that of the calyx. It is often difficult to find it. If a path is found, it must be prevented and treated in time. Otherwise, the flower will not bloom. Therefore, spraying with Kangkang No. 1 and chlorinating insecticides can effectively prevent and control spraying. The cold blue blooms mostly in the late autumn and early winter, and the weather is getting colder. It often feels fragrant and lack of gas. In order to make the cold blue and fragrant and elegant, the flowering period should be more sunbathing, so that even if it is only at night, it will be fragrant. The chilly orchids are fragrant in beauty, colorful in color, sinuous and high in the frame, the leaves are straight and bowed, the density is dense, the show Yipiao move, the soft in the middle, the leaves and flowers are ya, and they are highly appreciated in the Lancome of China. .
Speaking of orchids in Yunnan, people may be more concerned about lotus petals. In fact, Yunnan has a complex terrain and a wide variety of climates. In addition to the outstanding quality of lotus petals in Yunnan, many fine Yunnan orchid species grow in many areas. Xionghualan in southern Jiangxi is a species of orchid that is very good. Xia Hanlan is a variant of Canglan that grows in the mountains of southern Anhui. The land is born blue. The root system is developed, thick and long, and the pseudobulb is not obvious. Each seedling leaves 4-6 pieces, leaves half erect, veins thick, 35-80 cm long leaves, leaves 1-2 cm wide, dark green leaves, shiny, leaves with the wind elegant, free and easy, Ye Zi is very beautiful. In flowering season from May to June, each arrow spends more than 8-10 flowers, the arrowhead stands upright, and the arrows and leaves are as high as or higher than the leaves. The flowers are pure and strong and lasting, the quilt is blue-green, yellow-green, and the main petals. The side lobe is long and narrow, with a flower diameter of about 7 cm. The flaps are green with red spots.
In addition to the general varieties, Xia Hanlan also has some rare varieties such as Suxin Xia Hanlan, Xia Hanlan Fuzahua, Xia Hanlan and other varieties of new varieties, Xia Hanlan various leaf arts, etc., much loved by flower friends.
Xia Hanlan has low requirements for the climate and soil, and is easy to cultivate and breed. It is really rare in the blue. The general chilly orchids bloom in winter, and the summer chilly orchids in southern Jiangxi bloom from May to June. Most of the other orchids are in the growing season. In this season, the orchids are in the off-season, and the southern summer chilly orchids are full bloom. It is rare. Friends enjoy the flowers in the off-season season.
Ventilator block diagram
One. Main mechanical ventilation modes
(1) Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV): positive pressure in the inspiratory phase and zero pressure in the expiratory phase. 1. Working principle: The ventilator generates positive pressure in the inspiratory phase and presses the gas into the lungs. After the pressure rises to a certain level or the inhaled volume reaches a certain level, the ventilator stops supplying air, the exhalation valve opens, and the patient's thorax Passive collapse of the lungs and exhalation. 2. Clinical application: Various patients with respiratory failure mainly based on ventilation function, such as COPD.
(2) Intermittent positive and negative pressure ventilation (IPNPV): the inspiratory phase is positive pressure and the expiratory phase is negative pressure. 1. How it works: The ventilator works both in the inspiratory and exhaled phases. 2. Clinical application: Expiratory negative pressure can cause alveolar collapse and cause iatrogenic atelectasis.
(3) Continuous positive pressure airway ventilation (CPAP): Refers to the patient's spontaneous breathing and artificial positive airway pressure during the entire respiratory cycle. 1. Working principle: Inspiratory phase gives continuous positive pressure air flow, and exhalation phase also gives a certain resistance, so that the airway pressure of inhalation and exhalation phases are higher than atmospheric pressure. 2. Advantages: The continuous positive pressure airflow during inhalation is greater than the inspiratory airflow, which saves the patient's inhalation effort, increases FRC, and prevents the collapse of the airway and alveoli. Can be used for exercise before going offline. 3. Disadvantages: great interference to circulation, large pressure injury of lung tissue.
(4) Intermittent command ventilation and synchronized intermittent command ventilation (IMV / SIMV) IMV: There is no synchronization device, the ventilator air supply does not require the patient's spontaneous breathing trigger, and the time of each air supply in the breathing cycle is not constant. 2. SIMV: There is a synchronization device. The ventilator gives the patient a commanded breath according to the pre-designed breathing parameters every minute. The patient can breathe spontaneously without being affected by the ventilator. 3. Advantages: It exerts its ability to regulate breathing while offline; it has less influence on circulation and lungs than IPPV; it reduces the use of shock medicine to a certain extent. 4. Application: It is generally considered to be used when off-line. When R <5 times / min, it still maintains a good oxygenation state. You can consider off-line. Generally, PSV is added to avoid respiratory muscle fatigue.
(5) Mandatory ventilation per minute (MMV) When spontaneous breathing> preset minute ventilation, the ventilator does not command ventilation, but only provides a continuous positive pressure. 2. When spontaneous breathing is less than the preset minute ventilation volume, the ventilator performs command ventilation to increase the minute ventilation volume to reach the preset level.
(6) Pressure Support Ventilation (PSV) Definition: Under the prerequisite of spontaneous breathing, each inhalation receives a certain level of pressure support, increasing the patient's inhalation depth and inhalation volume. 2. How it works: The inspiratory pressure begins with the patient's inspiratory action, and ends when the inspiratory flow rate decreases to a certain level or the patient attempts to exhale hard. Compared with IPPV, the pressure it supports is constant, and it is adjusted by the feedback of the inspiratory flow rate. Compared with SIMV, it can get pressure support for each inhalation, but the level of support can be set according to different needs. 3. Application: SIMV + PSV: used for preparation before off-line, can reduce breathing work and oxygen consumption Indications: Exercise the ventilator; prepare before going offline; the ventilator is weak due to various reasons; severe flail chest causes abnormal breathing. 5. Note: Generally not used alone, it will produce insufficient or excessive ventilation.
(7) Volume Supported Ventilation (VSV): Each breath is triggered by the patient's spontaneous breathing. The patient can also breathe without any support and can reach the expected TV and MV levels. The ventilator will allow the patient to be truly autonomous Breathing also applies to preparations before going offline.
(8) Capacity control of pressure regulation
(IX) Biphasic or bilevel positive pressure ventilation How it works: P1 is equivalent to inspiratory pressure, P2 is equivalent to breathing pressure, T1 is equivalent to inspiratory time, and T2 is equivalent to exhalation time. 2. Clinical application: (1) When P1 = inspiratory pressure, T1 = inspiratory time, P2 = 0 or PEEP, T2 = expiratory time, which is equivalent to IPPV. (2) When P1 = PEEP, T1 = infinity, P2 = 0, T2 = O, which is equivalent to CPAP. (3) When P1 = inspiratory pressure, T1 = inspiratory time, P2-0 or PEEP, T2 = desired controlled inhalation cycle, equivalent to SIMV.
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