Physiological Needs of Fertilizer and Fertilization Points for Peach Trees

First, the need for fertilizer characteristics

(I) Fertilization should not be deep. The roots of shallow peach trees are well developed. There are more lateral and fibrous roots and strong absorption. However, the distribution of roots is shallow, and most of them are concentrated in the soil layer 20 to 40 cm below the surface. Such as lack of nutrition, it will affect the tree potential, yield, quality and longevity. Therefore, fertilization should not be shallow, and shallow application may cause roots to float upward.

(B) Particularly sensitive to nitrogen fertilizer in the sapling period, such as excessive nitrogen fertilizer, often cause leggy, difficult to flower, flower buds of poor quality, put into operation late, more fruit drop, heavy plastic flow. In particular, the fertile soil, fertilizer and water in the garden of the strong tree, Xie Hua after the application of too much nitrogen fertilizer, shoots long fierce, particularly serious fruit drop. In the later period of fruit growth, if the application of chemical nitrogen fertilizer is excessive, the fruit sugar is low in taste, and the flavor is poor. In the full fruit period, more nitrogen is needed, such as insufficient nitrogen, which may cause premature aging of tree vigor and shorten the fruit period. Weak trees, such as nitrogen deficiency, will cause short shoots, small yellow leaves and reduced yield and quality. In the aging period, sufficient nitrogen can promote multiple new shoots and postpone the aging process. On the contrary, nitrogen deficiency will accelerate aging and shorten plant life.

(3) The contradiction between nutrients in the top fruit contest highlights the growth of new shoots and fruit development in the same period. Therefore, the contradiction between topnuts competing for nutrients is particularly prominent.

(4) Potassium requirement The demand for potassium is great for peach trees, especially for fruit development. The potassium requirement is 3.2 times that of nitrogen. Potassium has a significant effect on increasing fruits and improving quality.

(5) The most suitable soil pH of slightly acidic to neutral soil peach is 5-6. The pH value higher than 8 is prone to zinc deficiency. The lower 4 is prone to magnesium deficiency. The absorption of nitrogen must be under acidic conditions. Can be carried out under the circumstances, so fertilization must pay attention to the adjustment of soil pH.

Second, fertilization points

(a) Young trees fertilized under the age of 4 years, such as soil loose and fertile, the growth is very strong, upright branches up to 2 meters a year, but slender branches, flower bud formation is small and weak, can not advance results. Therefore, in the fertilization, apply appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer every year from April to April to promote hair leaf extraction. In the first year, each plant will treat 20 kg of fecal urine and water per month or apply 20 g of urea per plant after irrigation; 5 to 6 months Phosphorus dominated, followed by potassium, nitrogen less, so as to avoid too much nitrogen, causing leggy, each application of ammonium phosphate potassium per month, 30 grams of compound fertilizer; from July to September, the main potassium, phosphorus is Controlled nitrogen application or no nitrogen application, each application of ammonium phosphate potassium compound fertilizer 30 to 40 grams. From the second year onwards, the subsequent fertilization will increase from one-half to one-time in successive years.

(B) Fertilization of Large Trees and Determination of Fertilization Amounts

(1) The amount of nutrients taken by the fruit According to foreign experiments and production practices, it is proved that peaches with 1800-2,200 kilograms per mu yield 11.3 to 11.6 kilograms of pure nitrogen for fruits, 3.6 to 4.5 kilograms for pure phosphorus, and 13.1 for pure potassium. ~15.0 kg. The determination of peach production areas in China, each producing 100 kilograms of fruit, the need for pure nitrogen 0.5 kilograms, pure phosphorus 0.2 kilograms, pure potassium 0.6 to 0.7 kilograms. In addition to the need for growth of roots and leaves, rainwater leaching and soil erosion, and soils with moderate fertility in Taoyuan, the annual amount of fertilizer should be 2 to 3 times the amount of fruit taken away.

(2) Morphologically diagnosed nitrogen deficiency showed yellow leaves, short branches, and early growth arrest; excess performance was leggy. Phosphorus deficiency, poor growth of roots and shoots, fruit dark spots, poor quality; excess, fruit setting rate is low, fruit development is not normal, the fruit is light, late maturity, rapid decay, and lead to zinc deficiency. Insufficient potassium, small and pale leaves, wrinkled leaves and yellow spots, in the summer leaves withered and involute at the tip of the leaf, when the symptoms are severe when the leaf margin focal spot, focal spot edge and Jianping all off the layer and all off. Potassium consumes the greatest amount of fruit, and higher yields produce more. In the absence of calcium, the size of the leaves remained the same, but it was dark and involute. The middle part of the middle leaf was discolored, and about 1/3 of the leaves were dead and festered. Magnesium deficiency is most likely to occur in rainy areas, where the green color between veins disappears. Only veins are still green, which is similar to iron deficiency. Zinc deficiency, leaf margin curling, leaves become narrow, yellow and white veins between the leaves, the tip of the new tip is fine, internode shortening, dense leaves or whorls, in severe cases when the leaves are dead and die, and when not mature and fall The new shoots are bare and affect flower bud differentiation, resulting in less fruit and more deformed fruit. Boron deficiency, the top of the branches withered, and many new shoots were born at the bottom of the dead. The leaves became smaller and deformed. The fruit appeared irregular hair at the initial stage. The color of the inverted hair was dark green and then changed from dark green to fruit after increasing. Dark green, and began to hair removal, hard spots, and gradually corked, after the fruit was deformed. Iron deficiency, chlorosis of stems and leaves, full occurrence of yellow-white reticulate veins, leaf margin brown charred.

(3) Fertilization points:

(A) The base fertilizer is the best time for applying the basal fertilizer to peaches from September to October. Fertilization method, full-ring ditch for young trees, semi-circular ditch for adult trees, radiation ditch, fan-shaped pit can be. Fertilizer manure, compost, earth miscellaneous manure, green manure, and cake manure can be mixed with appropriate amounts of chemical phosphorus and potash fertilizers. All elements are required, sufficient quantity, high concentration, and coordinated ratio. Generally, strains produce trees of 80 to 100 kilograms and should be applied to manure. 100 ~ 120 kg, calcium magnesium phosphate (or superphosphate) 2 ~ 3 kg, potassium sulfate 1 kg, 100 grams of borax.

(B) top dressing three times a year. Fertilizer before flowering, when flower buds are swollen, they are mainly available nitrogen fertilizers, supplemented by potash fertilizers. As a result, each tree complicates the production of 100 kilograms of manure and urine water (or 500 to 800 grams of urea) and 300 grams of potassium sulfate. Applying water before flowering is effective and labor saving. Strong fruit fertilizer, in the rapid expansion of fruit application, the ratio of three elements: nitrogen 25%, phosphorus 35%, potassium 40%. The fertilizer was harvested, the early maturing varieties were applied after fruit harvesting, and the mid-late maturing varieties were applied 30 days before fruit harvesting. The proportions of the three elements were 40% nitrogen, 30% phosphorus and 30% potassium.

(C) Top-dressing saplings and trees will be carried out. That is, during the growing season, according to the different nutrients required for the growth of the tree and the fruit, the fertilizer is sprayed on the leaves and branches of the fruit with water, and special attention should be paid to spraying boron, calcium, magnesium, zinc and other trace elements. Usually after 25 days after flowering, fruit enlargement and 25 days before harvesting, spray 3,000 times rare earth or 500 times peach special fertilizer once. From the fruit enlargement period, spray 300-350 times of potassium dihydrogen phosphate once every half month. 2 or 3 times to increase the content and quality of fruit sugar.

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